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What are the Different Types of Working Capital?

Published on Apr 22, 2021Updated on Jan 24, 2024

What are the Different Types of Working Capital?

Working capital is the most important component of a business that represents the liquidity available to a business enterprise for managing day-to-day operations. Working capital is calculated by deducting current liabilities from current assets -> Working capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities.

A business always aims to have positive working capital, as it showcases its ability to meet the short-term requirements and retain its competitive advantage in the market. Similarly, insufficient working capital indicates a business’s inability to meet the short term obligations and operations may suffer. 

Therefore, working capital management is very important to maintain an adequate level of funds, neither excessive nor inadequate.

Types of Working Capital in India

There are many types of working capital a business has to maintain based on value and periodicity. Let’s have a detailed look.

Based on Value

  • Gross Working Capital: It refers to the sum invested in the current assets of the business like cash, account receivable, inventory, marketable securities and short-term securities.
  • Net-Working Capital: It indicates the surplus-value of the current asset after deducting it from current liabilities.

The current assets here refer to cash, inventory, raw-material and account receivable. And, current liabilities include accounts payable.

Lenders always consider net-working capital before advancing a working capital loan.

Different Types of Working Capital in India

  1. Permanent Working Capital: It is also referred to as fixed working capital that the business intends to keep consistent every year. Permanent capital is considered very crucial for businesses as it is the minimum amount of working capital needed to cover all the current liabilities and ensure the smooth operation of the business.  The size of permanent working capital changes with the relative size of the business, meaning, one needs to increase the size of permanent working capital as the business grows. Lower fixed capital indicates reduced financial flexibility and operational efficiency of the business.
  2. Regular Working Capital: The minimum capital needed by a business to fund its regular operations is called Regular Working Capital. For instance, the expenses accumulated to process raw materials, operating expenses, etc., come under regular working capital.
  3. Variable Working Capital: Also known as fluctuating working capital, it is the additional working capital kept aside to meet any demand upsurge due to any factor or seasonal demand.
  4. Reserve Margin Working Capital: It is the extra capital that is maintained by businesses over and above their regular working capital to meet unforeseen contingencies like natural calamities, breakdown in machinery, damage to property, etc.
  5. Seasonal Variable Working Capital: As the name suggests, it is the additional capital kept aside to meet the peak seasonal demand of the year. Often, businesses borrow funds to meet such an increased level of capital requirements. For example, increased sales of air conditioners, coolers, refrigerators during peak summer.

At SMFG India Credit, we provide unsecured business loans upto INR 75 Lakhs* to eligible borrowers for a variety of business needs including working capital. Apply online today to know more. 

Must Read: 10 Types of Business Loans in India

Working Capital Cycle

For businesses to determine the right working capital requirement, they need to understand the working capital cycle of their business.

Also referred to as an operating cycle, it is the length of time between outflow and inflow of cash during business operation. In other words, it is the time taken to invest cash in an asset and reconvert it into cash.

Working Capital Finance

Running a business smoothly is no easy task as it requires a constant flow of funds to maintain the operation line and different services. And, sometimes, it becomes challenging to generate enough cash flow to sustain operations due to various factors.

In such a case, you can apply for a working capital loan, also known as a business loan.

Different Types of Working Capital Loan

  • Short-Term Loan: Suitable for meeting short term funding requirements in business, the loan type comes with a fixed interest rate and has a loan tenor of up to 12 months.
  • Long-Term Working Capital Loan: The loan type is suitable for meeting planned capital expenditure or capacity expansion and has a tenor of up to 60 months. It includes overdraft facility, letter of credit, bank guarantee, trade credit, etc.
  • Unsecured Working Capital Loan: These are collateral-free business loans having a flexible repayment tenure ranging between 12-36 months.
Must Read: What are the Business Loan Benefits & Advantages?

Business Loan Eligibility

The eligibility criteria for a business loan are as follows:

  • The applicant must be involved in the business of manufacturing, trading, and providing services
  • The business should be profitable for the last two years
  • The business should have a minimum turnover of Rs 10 lakh
  • The business should have a minimum annual income (ITR) of Rs 2 lakh every year

For securing an unsecured business loan, the applicant should have a minimum of two years of experience in the current business and at least 5 years of total business experience.

You can also use the business loan eligibility calculator to check your loan eligibility, interest rates and the amount offered as a loan.

Working Capital Loan Interest Rates

The working capital loan interest rate are usually determined based on the financial statement of the business, credit score of both owner and business and nature of business.

Apply business loans online and get access to funds quickly to meet the funding requirements of your business and maintain a competitive advantage.

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* Please note that this article is for your knowledge only. Loans are disbursed at the sole discretion of SMFG India Credit. Final approval, loan terms, disbursal process, foreclosure charges and foreclosure process will be subject to SMFG India Credit's policy at the time of loan application. If you wish to know more about our products and services, please contact us

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